Swachh Bharat Mission: After 9 years, how has India performed in cleaning itself? | Knowledge News

Workers cleaning a bank of the River Ganga under the Namami Gange Programme for Swacch Bharat Mission. (Photo credit: X/@cleanganganmcg)

New Delhi: On the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti, the Indian government started the ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ on October 2, 2014. Phase 1 of the Swachh Bharat Mission ended on October 2, 2019. Phase 2 is being implemented between 2020-21 and 2024-25 to further cement the efforts of Phase 1.

On the occasion of its anniversary, we will look at the impact the plan has had on Indian society.

In 2011, the Census found that sanitation coverage in rural India was just 34 per cent, as measured by the number of homes with toilets. At the time, an estimated 60 crore people defecated in open spaces.

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The prevalence of open defecation and pollution of drinking and bathing water in India spurred the government to take action.

How many villages are free of open defecation?

According to an official declaration on September 28, 2023, Uttar Pradesh has attained a stunning 100 per cent Open Defecation Free (ODF) Plus certification throughout 95,767 villages.

Uttar Pradesh has made tremendous progress in the current fiscal year. Only 15,088 villages in the state had obtained the coveted ODF Plus classification by January 1, 2023.

Within nine months, the state initiated a mission-driven effort to achieve ODF Plus status, which resulted in a triumphant conclusion with over 80,000 communities achieving ODF Plus classification, according to an official release.

The ODF Plus Model Village is one that maintains its ODF status, has both solid waste management and liquid waste management, and inspects visual hygiene, i.e., minimum waste, no stagnant waste water, no plastic waste dumping in public places, and displays ODF Plus information, Education, and Communication (IEC) messages.

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In 14 states throughout India, all villages have achieved ODF Plus certification. So far, according to official data, 4.4 lakh (75 per cent) villages across the nation have proclaimed themselves ODF Plus, a crucial step towards meeting the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Phase II targets by 2024-25.

Open Defecation Free plus villages in India:

S/No State/UT Total Villages ODF Plus villages (Till September 30, 2023)
1. A&N Islands 244 189
2. Andhra Pradesh 18,712 18,414
3. Arunachal Pradesh 5,410 1,223
4. Assam 25,438 25,355
5. Bihar 36,891 24,682
6. Chattisgarh 18,816 10,154
7. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu 97 97
8. Goa 365 365
9. Gujarat 18,282 18,282
10. Haryana 6,757 4,670
11. Himachal Pradesh 16,243 16,243
12. Jammu and Kashmir 6,650 6,650
13. Jharkhand 29,411 17,898
14. Karnataka 26,274 26,274
15. Kerala 1,509 1,509
16. Ladakh 238 238
17. Lakshadweep 10 9
18. Madhya Pradesh 50,358 49,574
19. Maharashtra 40,270 24,558
20. Manipur 2,556 40
21. Meghalaya 5,758 2,141
22. Mizoram 678 298
23. Nagaland 1,425 453
24. Odisha 46,778 17,328
25. Puducherry 108 108
26. Punjab 11,947 3,463
27. Rajasthan 42,097 22,444
28. Sikkim 403 403
29. Tamil Nadu 12,525 12,525
30. Telangana 12,769 12,769
31. Tripura 1,176 1,176
32. Uttar Pradesh 95,767 95,767
33. Ùttarakhand 15,049 6,821
34. West Bengal 40,600 25,958
Total 5,91,611 4,48,178

SBM adopts a multi-faceted approach

Community participation: Engagement entails ensuring proper participation of the beneficiaries/communities, financially or otherwise, in the installation of toilets in order to promote ownership and long-term use.

Flexibility in options: SBM provides flexibility by incorporating a menu of alternatives so that poor/disadvantaged households can afterwards improve their toilets according on their needs and financial situation.

Ability Building: SBM enhances districts’ institutional ability to alter behaviour at the grassroots level and strengthens the capacities of implementing agencies so that the programme can be implemented on time and aggregate outcomes can be monitored.

Instil behaviour change: Incentivizing the performance of state-level institutions to execute behavioural change initiatives in communities.

Broad-based Engagement: SBM established the Swachh Bharat Kosh to promote Corporate Social Responsibility and to accept contributions from private organisations, individuals, and philanthropists.

Use of Technology: Information technology and social media are critical components of this programme because they enable individuals to monitor the provision of toilets in every rural family in India. Almost 90% of all SBM toilets have already been geo-tagged. Many mobile applications have been established, not only by the government but also by a few people, to divert the attention of municipal corporations to dirty regions.

Ranking of the top ten districts, according to the Swacch Bharat Mission’s official website, based on Delta Achievement Scores as of 01/09/2023.

S/No State District Current ODF+ Score Delta Achievement Score
1. Kerala Kannur 100 300
2. Kerala Kottayam 100 300
3. Kerala Pathanamthitta 100 300
4. Madhya Pradesh Barwani 100 300
5. Madhya Pradesh Indore 100 300
6. Mizoram Kolasib 100 300
7. Mizoram Mamit 100 300
8. Kerala Thrissur 97.25 289.91
9. Kerala Kozhikode 94.58 278.43
10. Madhya Pradesh Agar Malwa 93.71 274.56

Community assets under the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) 2.0 as of September 2023.

S/No Community asset Total number
1. Community compost pits 5,02,188
2. Waste collection & segregation sheds 1,81,309
3. Vehicles for collection and transportation of waste 3,18,963
4. Drainage facility 7,27,602
5. Community soak pits 12,45,511
6. Wetlands/ Duckweed Pond/etc 86,251

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